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Subject Matter of Macro Economics (Central Issues)

The subject matter of macro economics are as follows: 

1. Determination of National Income: 

The first major issue in macro economics is to explain what determines the level of employment and national income in an economy and therefore what causes involuntary unemployment. The level of national income and employment are very low in times of depression as in 1930s in various capitalist countries of the world. This will explain the cause of huge unemployment that emerged in these countries. Classical economists denied that there could be involuntary unemployment of labour and other resources for a long time. Classical economist thought that with changes in wages and prices, unemployment would be automatically removed and full employment established. But this did not appear to be so at the time of great depression in the thirties (1930) and after. Keynes explained the level of employment and national income is determined by aggregate demand and aggregate supply. With aggregate supply curve remaining unchanged in the short run, it is the deficiency of aggregate demand that causes under employment equilibrium with the appearance of involuntary unemployment. According to Keynes it is the changes in private investment that causes fluctuations in aggregate demand and is, therefore, responsible for the problems of cyclical unemployment.

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